Understand File Types in Linux

Posted: February 21, 2017 in LINUX
Tags: , ,

In this tutorial we will learn and try to understand the types of files in Linux and how to identify them all.Before using any operating system we must know about the types of files available in those operating system.Like other OS Linux OS also has some files and each files have different properties and assigned for different task.

Types of files in linux.

The following are the list of file types, and their associated character:

• – regular file
• d directory
• b block device
• c character device
• l symbolic link
• s socket link, also called a Unix networking socket
• p first-in first-out (FIFO) buffer, also called a named pipe

 

1.Regular Files(-)

Regular files are normal files created by users.

How to create Regular Files.
There are so many ways to create a regular files in linux.
touch ,cat,dd,vim,vi,nano,gedit etc
#ls -l |grep ^-

 

[root@localhost ~]# ls -l|grep ^-
-rw-------  1 root   root        991 Sep 29 18:01 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root        159 Oct 16 03:09 hackinginjaipur
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      29623 Sep 29 18:01 install.log
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       3661 Sep 29 18:01 install.log.syslog
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root 3005818880 Sep 30 14:16 rhel54iso.iso
[root@localhost ~]#

 

 

2.Directory files(d)

#ls -l |grep ^d

 

[root@localhost ~]# ls -l|grep ^d
drwxr-xr-x  3 root   root       4096 Jan  9 06:30 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root       4096 Nov  4 00:49 E
drwxrwxr-x+ 2 tiwary root       4096 Nov  3 00:32 test
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root       4096 Jan  9 01:46 testing.txt
[root@localhost ~]#

 

3.Block Files (b)

Block Files are mainly hardware related files usually find inside /dev/ directory
#ls -l /dev/* |grep ^b

 

[root@localhost ~]# ls -l /dev/* |grep ^b
brw-rw---- 1 root disk   22,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/hdc
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop0
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   1 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop1
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   2 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop2
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   3 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop3
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   4 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop4
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   5 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop5
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   6 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop6
brw-r----- 1 root disk    7,   7 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/loop7
brw-r----- 1 root disk    9,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/md0
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   0 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram0
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   1 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram1
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  10 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram10
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  11 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram11
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  12 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram12
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  13 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram13
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  14 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram14
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,  15 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram15
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   2 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram2
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   3 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram3
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   4 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram4
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   5 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram5
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   6 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram6
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   7 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram7
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   8 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram8
brw-r----- 1 root disk    1,   9 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ram9
brw------- 1 root root    8,   1 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/root
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   1 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda1
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   2 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda2
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   4 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda4
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   5 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda5
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   6 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda6
brw-r----- 1 root disk    8,   7 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/sda7
brw------- 1 root root 253,  0 Feb 20 22:35 vg00-lv1
[root@localhost ~]#

4.character device files(c)

character devices are accessed through device files.

As we all know devices are divided in to two types: block devices and character devices.Most devices in the world are character.

#ls -l /dev/* |grep ^c

 

crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  47 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty47
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  48 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty48
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  49 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty49
crw------- 1 root root    4,   5 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/tty5
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  50 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty50
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  51 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty51
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  52 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty52
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  53 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty53
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  54 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty54
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  55 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty55
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  56 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty56
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  57 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty57
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  58 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty58
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  59 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty59
crw------- 1 root root    4,   6 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/tty6
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  60 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty60
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  61 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty61
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  62 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty62
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,  63 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty63
crw-rw---- 1 root root    4,   7 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/tty7
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,   8 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/tty8
crw-rw---- 1 root tty     4,   9 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/tty9
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp    4,  64 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ttyS0
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp    4,  65 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ttyS1
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp    4,  66 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ttyS2
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp    4,  67 Feb 20 22:34 /dev/ttyS3
cr--r--r-- 1 root root    1,   9 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/urandom
crw------- 1 root root  442,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/usbdev1.1_ep00
crw------- 1 root root  442,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/usbdev1.1_ep81
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   0 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/vcs
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   1 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs1
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   2 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs2
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   3 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs3
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   4 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs4
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   5 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs5
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   6 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs6
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7,   7 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcs7
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 128 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/vcsa
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 129 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa1
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 130 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa2
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 131 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa3
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 132 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa4
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 133 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa5
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 134 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa6
crw------- 1 vcsa tty     7, 135 Feb 20 22:37 /dev/vcsa7
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root    1,   5 Feb 20 22:35 /dev/zero
crw------- 1 root root 13, 64 Feb 20 22:35 event0
crw------- 1 root root 13, 65 Feb 20 22:35 event1
crw------- 1 root root 13, 66 Feb 20 22:35 event2
crw------- 1 root root 13, 63 Feb 20 22:35 mice
crw------- 1 root root 13, 32 Feb 20 22:35 mouse0
crw------- 1 root root  10, 63 Feb 20 22:35 control
crw------- 1 root root 10, 200 Feb 20 22:35 tun
crw--w---- 1 root tty 136, 1 Feb 20 22:59 1
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 7 Feb 20 22:35 controlC0
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 6 Feb 20 22:35 pcmC0D0c
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 5 Feb 20 22:35 pcmC0D0p
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 4 Feb 20 22:35 pcmC0D1c
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 3 Feb 20 22:35 seq
crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 2 Feb 20 22:35 timer
[root@localhost ~]#

 

5.named pipe files.(p)

Create pipe file using below command.
#mkfifo tiwary
#ls -l |grep ^p

 

[root@localhost ~]# mkfifo tiwary
[root@localhost ~]# ls -l |grep ^p
prw-r--r--  1 root   root          0 Feb 20 23:00 tiwary
[root@localhost ~]#

6.symbolic linked file(l)

These are mainly linked files with other files.
It can be soft link or hard link.
soft link is also known as symbolic link.

#ls -l |grep ^l

[root@localhost ~]# ls -l |grep ^l
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root   root          1 Feb 20 23:01 linuxtiwary -> s
[root@localhost ~]#

7.Socket Files (s)

Socket Files are used to made communication possible between applications.
#ls -l |grep ^s

 

Now I will explain all theses step by step and we understand each file type with examples.

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