Archive for March, 2017

Learn to configure IPv6 static routing.This is IPv6 static routing configuration lab in cisco packet tracer.This is an IPv6 static routing example lab showing ipv6 routing configuration using two routers R1 and R2. Learn to configure Static Routes for IPv6. So this is a packet tracer  Lab  which will be focussed on configuring Static Routes For IPv6. 

ipv6 static routing

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Learn how to configure IPSEC site to site vpn on cisco router using cisco Packet Tracer.As we all know IPsec provides secure transmission of sensitive data over unprotected networks like internet.So what actually IPsec does is it acts at the network layer which means its working in network layer of TCP/IP model and protecting sensitive data and authenticate IP packets only between participating IPsec devices like cisco routers. here in this IPSEC Example lab Router0 and Router1 is is participating in IPsec peers.So in this activity or in this lab i will configure these two routers to support a site to site IPsec VPN for traffic flowing from their respective LANs.

While configuring this lab I consider that everyone who is going to configure this lab must know how to assign ip address on router interfaces and if you don’t you can read my articles on  How to assign ip address on Router interfaces..

ipsec configuration

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In this tutorial we will Learn  how to  configure verify and troubleshoot LACP (Link Aggregation or Ether Channel). Actually Link Aggregation or Ether Channel is a technology very similar to PAgP which allows two or more than two physical ports to combine and provide a new third single logical port which results in high availability and increased bandwidth. In below topology diagram you can see two switches switch0 and switch1 having ports fa0/1 and fa0/2.Using LACP we can bind these two ports to form a single logical port.

Remember LACP is open standard as defined by IEEE 802.3ad standard.
LACP(link aggregation control protocol) have two working mode port one is acive mode and other is passive mode.Passive is equivalent of the PAGP auto and active is equivalent to PAGP desirable mode.

You can also Read:

Configure Ether Channel Manually.
Configuer Ether Channel using PAgP.

lacp

 

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In this tutorial we will learn about PAGP.We will learn how to configure PAGP and how to verify and troubleshoot it after configuration. But before that we must know what PAGP is.PAgP is actually a Cisco Proprietary Protocol which is known as Port Aggregation Protocol which is used to combine two or more physical ports in to a single logical port or you can say it as a EtherChannel. PAGP is developed by CISCO company.The port modes are defined as either auto or desirable.

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CCNA theory question Paper at ETHICAL HACKING TUITION CENTER JAIPUR
TOTAL MARKS:1000                      PASS MARK:800                     TOTAL QUESTIONS:70

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backup route lab

In this lab we will learn how to configure backup route configuration in packet tracer.This is an example lab showing backup route configuration betwenn router0 and Router1.

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extended acl lab

Here in this lab we will learn how to block or allow certain services binded on port.In other way you can that how to block or allow certain port or certain services using extended access-list in cisco packet tracer.This is an example lab showing how to block a certain port and how to allow a certain port using extended ACL.In this lab i am going to allow web services port say port number 80 and going to block FTP services say PORT 21. (more…)

Extended ACL is more precise than standard ACL.Even we can block a particular ip or range of ip address or network address using extended acl. We can also allow certain hosts and block few as per our requirement using extended acl. Standard ACL is very light weight and hence consume less processing power while extended need more processing power.Here in this lab we will learn to configure and use Extended access-list using an example lab in cisco packet tracer.We will block our clients or a network to access certain servers and allow to access few servers.

 

We want to block all clients in network 1.0.0.0/8 to access server SERVER 0 and SERVER1 but can access SERVER2 and SERVER3
extended aclSTEP 1:First Assign ip address to all as I have mentioned in above Diagram.

 

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In this lab we will learn to configure multi area ospf using cisco packet tracer.
In below Network Topology Diagram you can see there are Two area Area 0 and Area 1.

Now you have to configure OSPF such that devices in area 0 can easily communicate with devices in Area 1

 

multi area ospf lab

STEP 1:First assign ip address on each interfaces as show in above Diagram.

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We have already learnt how to increase the size of lvm using lvextend command in linux.But Now here in this tutorial we will learn the reverse process i.e how to Reduce the lvm size in linux and we will do this in few simple steps.So this is basically an example lab showing how to reduce size of lvm in linux.

reduce lvm size

STEP 1:Check the mounted file system using df -h

[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 25G 2.1G 22G 9% /
tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 1.5G 34M 1.4G 3% /lvmdata
[root@localhost ~]#

STEP 2:Unmount the file system using umount command

[root@localhost ~]# umount /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1

STEP 3:Now run e2fsck command to check if any file system errors.

[root@localhost ~]# e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1
e2fsck 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/mapper/vg00-lv1: 11/196608 files (9.1% non-contiguous), 14766/390144 blocks
[root@localhost ~]#

STEP 4:shrink size of /lvmdata to desire size whatever you want.

As you can see above i am going to reduce the size to 1G from 1.5 GB

[root@localhost ~]# resize2fs /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 1G
resize2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 to 262144 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 is now 262144 blocks long.

STEP5: Now reduce the size using lvreduce command

root@localhost ~]# lvreduce -L 1G /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1
 WARNING: Reducing active logical volume to 1.00 GB
 THIS MAY DESTROY YOUR DATA (filesystem etc.)
Do you really want to reduce lv1? [y/n]: y
 Reducing logical volume lv1 to 1.00 GB
 Logical volume lv1 successfully resized

STEP 6: Now for safer side check the file system error again.

[root@localhost ~]# e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1
e2fsck 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
Pass 2: Checking directory structure
Pass 3: Checking directory connectivity
Pass 4: Checking reference counts
Pass 5: Checking group summary information
/dev/mapper/vg00-lv1: 11/131072 files (9.1% non-contiguous), 12805/262144 blocks
STEP 7: Now mount the file system and check the size.
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 /lvmdata/
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 25G 2.1G 22G 9% /
tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 1008M 34M 934M 4% /lvmdata
[root@localhost ~]#
Hence now you can see we have successfully reduced the size of LVM.
root@localhost ~]# lvs
 LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy% Convert
 lv1 vg00 -wi-ao 1.00G
[root@localhost ~]# lvdisplay
 --- Logical volume ---
 LV Name /dev/vg00/lv1
 VG Name vg00
 LV UUID gx22Pn-9YAe-th6G-jGw7-vD2X-Qhov-bi05Ox
 LV Write Access read/write
 LV Status available
 # open 1
 LV Size 1.00 GB
 Current LE 256
 Segments 2
 Allocation inherit
 Read ahead sectors auto
 - currently set to 256
 Block device 253:0
[root@localhost ~]#

If you are working as a Linux System Admin then resizing the file system size is an important task for you and you must know that.Here in this tutorial we are going to learn how to increase or extend lvm partition size.As we all know LVM provides us the facility to increase or reduce the of partition.

So here we will learn to increase lvm size using lvextend command,but before that we will create lvm first and mount it so that it is ready for use.

STEP1: Create Physical Volumes using pvcreate command.

[root@localhost ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda{5,6,7}
 Physical volume "/dev/sda5" successfully created
 Physical volume "/dev/sda6" successfully created
 Physical volume "/dev/sda7" successfully created

now check the create physical volume using pvscan.

[root@localhost ~]# pvscan
 PV /dev/sda5 lvm2 [964.81 MB]
 PV /dev/sda6 lvm2 [964.81 MB]
 PV /dev/sda7 lvm2 [831.46 MB]
 Total: 3 [2.70 GB] / in use: 0 [0 ] / in no VG: 3 [2.70 GB]

STEP2: create Volume Group using vgcreate command

[root@localhost ~]# vgcreate vg00 /dev/sda{5,6,7}
 Volume group "vg00" successfully created
[root@localhost ~]# vgs
 VG #PV #LV #SN Attr VSize VFree
 vg00 3 0 0 wz--n- 2.69G 2.69G
[root@localhost ~]# pvscan
 PV /dev/sda5 VG vg00 lvm2 [964.00 MB / 964.00 MB free]
 PV /dev/sda6 VG vg00 lvm2 [964.00 MB / 964.00 MB free]
 PV /dev/sda7 VG vg00 lvm2 [828.00 MB / 828.00 MB free]
 Total: 3 [2.69 GB] / in use: 3 [2.69 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
 [root@localhost ~]#

STEP3: Create Logical Volume(lvm) name lv1 using lvcreate command.

[root@localhost ~]# lvcreate -L +1G -n lv1 vg00
 Logical volume "lv1" created
 [root@localhost ~]# lvs
 LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy% Convert
 lv1 vg00 -wi-a- 1.00G
 [root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# lvdisplay
 --- Logical volume ---
 LV Name /dev/vg00/lv1
 VG Name vg00
 LV UUID YYXZk0-bs6F-wE8z-88P3-f67R-G4vj-IrohD2
 LV Write Access read/write
 LV Status available
 # open 0
 LV Size 1.00 GB
 Current LE 256
 Segments 2
 Allocation inherit
 Read ahead sectors auto
 - currently set to 256
 Block device 253:0
 [root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# pvscan
 PV /dev/sda5 VG vg00 lvm2 [964.00 MB / 0 free]
 PV /dev/sda6 VG vg00 lvm2 [964.00 MB / 904.00 MB free]
 PV /dev/sda7 VG vg00 lvm2 [828.00 MB / 828.00 MB free]
 Total: 3 [2.69 GB] / in use: 3 [2.69 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
 [root@localhost ~]#

STEP4: Format and Mount it so that it is ready for use.

First format the file system using mkfs.ext3 command.

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/vg00/lv1

Then create a directory to mount newly created File System.

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /lvmdata
Now mount newly created file system using mount command to use.
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/vg00/lv1 /lvmdata

STEP5: View it’s size using lvs, lvdisplay or df -Th command.

[root@localhost ~]# df -h
 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/sda1 25G 2.1G 22G 9% /
 tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm
 /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 1008M 34M 924M 4% /lvmdata
 [root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# lvs
 LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy% Convert
 lv1 vg00 -wi-ao 1.00G
 [root@localhost ~]#

STEP6:Before making change to lvm check the free available space in the volume group “vg00”.

[root@localhost ~]# vgdisplay vg00
 --- Volume group ---
 VG Name vg00
 System ID
 Format lvm2
 Metadata Areas 3
 Metadata Sequence No 2
 VG Access read/write
 VG Status resizable
 MAX LV 0
 Cur LV 1
 Open LV 1
 Max PV 0
 Cur PV 3
 Act PV 3
 VG Size 2.69 GB
 PE Size 4.00 MB
 Total PE 689
 Alloc PE / Size 256 / 1.00 GB
 Free PE / Size 433 / 1.69 GB
 VG UUID vBYPKn-9Bpk-jvK2-tc2e-e78U-V5jq-lgbcbZ
 [root@localhost ~]#

STEP7:Use lvextend command to increase the size of lvm named “lv1”

[root@localhost ~]# lvextend -L +500M /dev/vg00/lv1
 Extending logical volume lv1 to 1.49 GB
 Logical volume lv1 successfully resized

STEP8:check file system size using lvs or lvdisplay.

[root@localhost ~]# lvs
 LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy% Convert
 lv1 vg00 -wi-ao 1.49G
 [root@localhost ~]#

You can see above output the file size increased here.

STEP9:Check Mounted file system size using df -h

[root@localhost ~]# df -Th
 Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/sda1 ext3 25G 2.1G 22G 9% /
 tmpfs tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm
 /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1
 ext3 1008M 34M 924M 4% /lvmdata
 [root@localhost ~]#

but you can see File system size not updated here because to update it we need to run resize2fs command.

STEP10:Run resize2fs command to resize the file system size.

[root@localhost ~]# resize2fs /dev/vg00/lv1
 resize2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
 Filesystem at /dev/vg00/lv1 is mounted on /lvmdata; on-line resizing required
 Performing an on-line resize of /dev/vg00/lv1 to 390144 (4k) blocks.
 The filesystem on /dev/vg00/lv1 is now 390144 blocks long.
 [root@localhost ~]#
STEP11: Again check mounted file system size using df -h.
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
 /dev/sda1 25G 2.1G 22G 9% /
 tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm
 /dev/mapper/vg00-lv1 1.5G 34M 1.4G 3% /lvmdata
 [root@localhost ~]#

In this ccna lab we will learn ssh configuration on cisco routers.I use step by step method to made this configuration easy and clear.
To enable secure access to your Cisco device, you can use SSH instead of Telnet which is less secure than SSH.
SSH uses encryption to secure data from eavesdropping while telnet use clear text username and password which can be hacked or sniffed by hackers easily. So i recommend you to use SSH instead of TELNET. Although you can use telnet where security is not a great concern.

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Working as a Network Admin or Network engineer you need to know how to secure router and switches.here in this article we will learn how to secure cisco router. Securing cisco router means secure it in all the possible way, whether it is console based security by providing console password or enable password security or enable secret security.you also should configure router auxiliary password.When we talk about securing router from remote users or users in network then we must configure telnet password and ssh password along with all above passwords.

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Learn  how to write compile and run RUBY programming in Linux.This tutorial is for all those RUBY Programmers who are interested in developing some linux application using RUBY Program or Linux Users who are interested in learning RUBY Programming language to enhance their skills. here i have mentioned RUBY programming compiler, along with how to write ruby program in linux and how to compile and run it.

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